Prelude to the Easter Rising of 1916

Prelude to the Easter Rising of 1916
The Signatories of the Proclamation

Search This Blog

Saturday, March 30, 2013

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil -Patrick Joseph "Paddy" Lalor

Patrick Joseph "Paddy" Lalor (born 21 July 1926) is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician and a well known hurling player for Laois.

Paddy Lalor was a member of the last Laois team to win the Leinster Senior Hurling Championship in 1949. Later that year he helped his club Abbeyleix to win the Laois Senior Hurling Championship.
He played football and hurling for his club and county for many years and is generally regarded as one of the most skilful hurlers to have pulled on the Blue and White jersey of Laois. This was evidenced by his selection in 1999 on the Laois Hurling Team of the Millennium.

He was a Teachta Dála (TD) for over twenty years, and a minister three times. He was elected to Dáil Éireann on his first attempt at the 1961 general election as a Fianna Fáil TD for Laois–Offaly in the 17th Dáil. In 1965 he was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Agriculture. The following year Lalor became Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Transport and Power and Posts and Telegraphs.

Following the 1969 election Lalor joined the cabinet of Jack Lynch as Minister for Posts and Telegraphs. In the cabinet reshuffle that took place following the Arms Crisis in 1970 he took over the Industry and Commerce portfolio, serving in that position until the 1973 general election, when a Fine Gael–Labour Party coalition took power.

Fianna Fáil was re-elected in a landslide victory at the 1977 general election and Lalor became Parliamentary Secretary to the Taoiseach. In 1979 he was elected to the European Parliament for the Leinster constituency. He did not stand at the 1981 general election. He was re-elected to the European Parliament in 1984 and 1989.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Brendan Crinion

Brendan Crinion (11 November 1923 – 2 July 1989) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served for more than twenty years as a Teachta Dála (TD) and as a Senator.
A farmer before entering politics, Crinion was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fianna Fáil TD for the Kildare constituency at the 1961 general election. He was returned for Kildare at the 1965 general election, but after boundary changes for the 1969 general election he stood in the neighbouring Meath constituency. He was defeated there, but was then nominated by the Taoiseach, Jack Lynch, to the 12th Seanad.

At the next general election, in 1973, he stood again in Meath, unseating the long-serving Fianna Fáil TD Michael Hilliard. Crinion was re-elected in Meath at the 1977 general election and again in 1981 general election, before retiring from politics at the February 1982 general election.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Timothy (Chubb) O'Connor

Timothy (Chubb) O'Connor (1 October 1906 – 21 July 1986) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician.

He was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála (TD) for the Kerry South constituency at the 1961 general election. He was re-elected at each subsequent general election until he lost his seat at the 1981 general election. He stood unsuccessfully at the 1979 European Parliament election for the Munster constituency.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - James Joseph O'Keeffe

James Joseph O'Keeffe (1912 – May 1986) was an Irish Fine Gael politician. A merchant and company director, he was a member of the Seanad from 1954 to 1961. During this period he also stood unsuccessfully for Dáil Éireann in the Dublin South–West constituency at the 1951 and 1957 general elections. He succeeded at the third attempt in being elected for Dublin South–West in 1961.

However he lost his seat at the 1965 general election despite increasing his vote. He stood again in 1969 and 1977 in the newly created Dublin Rathmines West but did not regain his seat.
He was also Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1962–1963 and 1974–1975.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Joseph Barron

Joseph Barron (died 30 July 1968) was an Irish Clann na Poblachta politician. A teacher by profession, he first stood unsuccessfully for election at the 1948 general election as a Clann na Poblachta candidate for the Dublin South–Central constituency. He was also an unsuccessful candidate at the 1951, 1954 and 1957 general elections.

He was elected to Dáil Éireann at the 1961 general election as a Clann na Poblachta Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin South–Central constituency.

The leader of Clann na Poblachta, Seán MacBride, lost his seat at the 1961 election and Barron became the leader and sole member of the Clann na Poblachta parliamentary party. He lost his seat at the 1965 general election.

Saturday, March 23, 2013

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Michael Mullen

 Michael Mullen
 Michael Mullen (1 February 1919 – 1 November 1982) was an Irish Labour Party politician and trade union official. He was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Labour Party Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin North–West constituency at the 1961 general election and was re-elected at the 1965 general election. He did not contest the 1969 general election. He was nominated by the Taoiseach Liam Cosgrave in 1973 to the 13th Seanad.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Eugene Timmons

Eugene Timmons (died 13 May 1999) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician. An office worker, Timmons was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin North–East constituency at the 1961 general election, having previously stood at the 1948, 1951 and 1954 general elections, but not the 1957 general election. Timmons was not re-elected at the 1965 general election but regained his Dáil seat at the 1969 general election until finally losing it at the 1977 general election.

Timmons served two terms as Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1965 to 1967.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - George Colley

 George Colley

George Colley (18 October 1925 – 17 September 1983) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician, who served in a wide number of Cabinet positions, most notably as Minister for Finance and Tánaiste. He was defeated twice for the leadership of Fianna Fáil in 1966 and 1979.

Colley was born in the Dublin suburb of Fairview, the son of Harry and Christina Colley. His father was a veteran of the 1916 Easter Rising and a former adjutant in the Irish Republican Army (IRA) who was elected to Dáil Éireann in 1944 as a Fianna Fáil candidate.

He was educated at St. Joseph's Christian Brothers School in Fairview where one of his classmates and closest friends was Charles Haughey, who later became his political arch rival. He studied law at University College Dublin and qualified as a solicitor in the mid-1940s. He remained friends with Haughey after leaving school and, ironically, encouraged him to become a member of Fianna Fáil in 1951. Haughey was elected to Dáil Éireann in the 1957 general election, ousting Colley's father in the process. This put some strain on the relationship between the two young men.

Colley was elected to the Dáil at the 1961 general election, reclaiming his father's old seat in the Dublin North–East constituency. Furthermore, he was elected in the same constituency as Haughey, thereby accentuating the rivalry. Thereafter, Colley progressed rapidly through the ranks of Fianna Fáil. He became a member of the Dáil at a time when a change from the older to the younger generation was taking place, a change facilitated by the Taoiseach, Seán Lemass.

He was active in the Oireachtas as chairman of some of the Joint Labour Committees set up under the Labour Court to fix legally enforceable wages for groups of workers who had not been effectively organised in trade unions. He was also leader of the Irish parliamentary delegation to the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe. Colley's work as a backbencher was rewarded by his appointment as Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Lands in October 1964.

Following the return of Lemass's government at the 1965 general election, Colley joined the government as Minister for Education. He introduced a plan to establish Comprehensive schools, set up an advisory council on post-primary school accommodation in Dublin, and introduced a school psychological service.

He was promoted to Minister for Industry and Commerce in a cabinet reshuffle in July 1966, and he continued the government policy of economic expansion that had prevailed since the late 1950s.

In November 1966, Seán Lemass resigned suddenly as Taoiseach. Colley and Charles Haughey both stood as candidates in the subsequent leadership election.

Colley's rise through politics was remarkable; after only five years in the Dáil, he was already in a position to contest the leadership of Fianna Fáil. He was the favoured candidate of party elders such as Seán MacEntee and Frank Aiken, the latter managing Colley's campaign and annoyed at Lemass's quick decision to retire before Colley had built up his support. Colley was considered to be in the same mould as the party founders, concerned with issues such as the peaceful re-unification of the country and the cause of the Irish language. A third candidate, Neil Blaney, also stated his interest in the leadership if a suitable candidate could not be found. However, both Haughey and Blaney withdrew when the Minister for Finance, Jack Lynch, announced his candidacy. Colley did not back down and the leadership issue went to a vote for the first time in the history of the Fianna Fáil party.

The leadership election took place on 9 November 1966 and Lynch beat Colley by 59 votes to 19. When the new Taoiseach announced his cabinet, no hard feelings were shown between the two men. Colley retained his Industry and Commerce portfolio in the following cabinet reshuffle.

Following Fianna Fáil's success at the 1969 general election, Colley held onto his existing cabinet post and also took charge of the Gaeltacht portfolio, an area where he had a personal interest. He used this dual position to direct industrial investment to Gaeltacht areas. He set about changing the traditional view of the Irish-speaking regions as backward and promoted their equal claim to the more sophisticated industries being established in Ireland by foreign investment.

In the wake of the Arms Crisis in 1970, a major reshuffle of the cabinet took place. Four ministers, Charles Haughey, Neil Blaney, Kevin Boland and Micheál Ó Móráin, were either sacked, or resigned, or simply retired from the government due to the scandal that was about to unfold. Despite his defeat by Jack Lynch in the leadership contest four years earlier, Colley had remained loyal to the party leader and had become a close political ally. He was rewarded by his appointment as Minister for Finance, the second most important position in government, while retaining the Gaeltacht portfolio.

Colley was regarded as a predictable minister and the ultimate safe man, as a highly orthodox Keynsian. His decision to introduce budget deficits in his first three budgets was even welcomed by the opposition. The most important event of his tenure as minister was the decimalisation of the Irish currency in 1971. He also championed the introduction of RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and argued the financial case for it in 1972, as minister with responsibility for the Gaeltacht.

In 1973, Fianna Fáil were ousted after sixteen years in government when the national coalition of Fine Gael and the Labour Party came to power. Colley was appointed opposition spokesman on finance in the new Fianna Fáil front bench. He came to be regarded as a hard-working spokesman and was a constant critic of what he viewed as the coalition government's restrictive economic policy and of the capital taxation which he believed discouraged investment.

As the 1977 general election approached, Colley and Martin O'Donoghue were the main architects of Fianna Fáil's election manifesto. The party's programme for government included a number of inducements, including the abolition of car tax and rates on houses, as it was believed that the coalition government would retain office.

Fianna Fáil swept to power at the 1977 general election, with a 20-seat Dáil majority, contrary to opinion polls and political commentators. Colley was re-appointed as Minister for Finance and Minister for the Public Service, and was also appointed as Tánaiste (deputy prime minister). The latter appointment established him firmly as the heir apparent to Taoiseach Jack Lynch.

During his second term as finance minister, Colley implemented controversial policies from the election manifesto. He immediately set about dismantling the previous government's capital taxation programme while also abolishing the wealth tax and diluting the capital gains and capital acquisitions taxes. His policy of low taxation and continued government investment resulted in massive foreign borrowing and a balance of payments deficit. In 1979, Fianna Fáil's economic policies were derailed due to strikes, higher wage demands, and the 1979 energy crisis. The introduction of a two percent levy on agricultural production angered some rural backbench TDs, and party tensions emerged.

In December 1979, Jack Lynch resigned unexpectedly as Taoiseach and as Fianna Fáil leader. It is said that Colley and his supporters encouraged Lynch to retire one month earlier than planned because he felt he had the support to win a leadership contest and that the quick decision would catch Charles Haughey and his supporters off guard.

Support for both candidates was evenly matched throughout the leadership contest. Colley had the backing of the majority of the Cabinet and the party hierarchy, while Haughey relied on support from the first-time backbenchers. A secret ballot was taken on Friday, 7 December 1979. The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Michael O'Kennedy announced his support for Haughey on the eve of the election. This was believed to have swung the vote, and Haughey beat Colley by 44 votes to 38.

Colley remained as Tánaiste but demanded and received a veto on Haughey's ministerial appointments to the departments of Justice and Defence. Colley was removed from his position as minister for the departments of Finance and the Public Service. He declined the position of Minister for Foreign Affairs, preferring instead a domestic portfolio, which resulted in a demotion. He was temporarily appointed Minister for Transport and Tourism before taking charge of the new Department of Energy. During his brief tenure, he blocked the Nuclear Energy Board's controversial plan to build a nuclear power plant at Carnsore Point in County Wexford.

Fianna Fáil lost power at the 1981 general election when a short-lived Fine Gael-Labour Party coalition government took office. Haughey delayed naming a new opposition front bench but Colley was still a key member of the Fianna Fáil hierarchy.

Fianna Fáil regained office at the February 1982 general election but there was disquiet about Haughey's leadership and the failure to secure an overall majority. Colley demanded the same veto as before on Haughey's Defence and Justice appointments, but was refused. When it was revealed that Ray MacSharry would be appointed Tánaiste in his stead, he declined another ministerial position. This effectively brought his front bench political career to an end, but he remained a vocal critic of the party leadership from the backbenches.

When the Fianna Fáil government collapsed and were replaced by another coalition government after the November 1982 general election, a number of TDs expressed lack of confidence in Haughey's leadership once again. Several unsuccessful leadership challenges took place in late 1982 and early 1983 with Colley now supporting Desmond O'Malley and the Gang of 22 who opposed Haughey.

 Colley died suddenly on 17 September 1983, aged 57, while receiving treatment for a heart condition at Guy's Hospital in London. He was survived by his wife, three sons, and four daughters, one of whom, Anne Colley, became a TD as a member of the Progressive Democrats party.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Mark Anthony Clinton

Mark Anthony Clinton (7 February 1915 – 23 December 2001) was an Irish Fine Gael politician.

Clinton was born to a farming family at Moynalty, Kells, County Meath, in February 1915. He was known as an accomplished Gaelic footballer in his youth and played on the Meath GAA team defeated in the 1939 All Ireland by Kerry. He served as a member of Dublin County Council from 1955 and represented various County Dublin constituencies as a Fine Gael Teachta Dála (TD) from 1961 until his retirement from Dáil Éireann in 1981.

In 1973, he joined the Irish Government of Liam Cosgrave as Minister for Agriculture and Fisheries in the National Coalition. Clinton is best remembered as the Agriculture Minister who negotiated Ireland's entry into the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy, a development which brought billions of pounds to Irish farming and agri business. He served in government until 1977 and retired from the Dáil in 1981. Clinton also served in the European Parliament for the Leinster constituency from 1979 to 1989 and his political experience was recognised by his election as vice-president of that assembly.

Mark Clinton died in a Dublin nursing home on 23 December 2001, survived by his wife and six of his seven children.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Paddy Harte

Paddy Harte (born 26 July 1931) is a retired Irish Fine Gael politician who served for 36 years as Teachta Dála (TD) for Donegal North–East.

He was born in 1931 in Lifford, County Donegal. His son, Jimmy Harte, is a Labour Party Senator.

He was first elected to the 17th Dáil at the 1961 general election, and re-elected at eleven further general elections. In the 22nd Dáil, from 1981 to 1982, he was Minister of State at the Department of Posts and Telegraphs in Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald's government. In 1989 he was an unsuccessful candidate in the Connacht–Ulster constituency at the elections to the European Parliament. He lost his seat at the 1997 general election to the Independent Fianna Fáil candidate Harry Blaney, and unsuccessfully contested the 1997 elections to Seanad Éireann on the Industrial and Commercial Panel. After this, he retired from politics.

Since his retirement he has been involved in a number of projects, including (along with Glen Barr) the Messines Island of Ireland Peace Park in West Flanders in Belgium. This park was officially opened in November 1998 by President Mary McAleese, Queen Elizabeth II and King Albert II of the Belgians to commemorate all Irishmen who died in World War I.

He was appointed an Honorary OBE in October 2006 for his ecumenical works. He received an honorary Doctorate of Laws from the National University of Ireland in September 2007 in recognition of his contribution to politics.

Saturday, March 16, 2013

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Philip Burton

Philip Burton (26 July 1910 – 3 January 1995) was an Irish Fine Gael politician, farmer and auctioneer. He first was elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fine Gael Teachta Dála (TD) for the Cork North–East constituency at the 1961 general election. He was re-elected at the 1965 and 1969 general elections, but lost his seat at the 1973 general election. He was subsequently elected to the 13th Seanad on the Administrative Panel. He retired from politics in 1977.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Séamus Dolan

Séamus Dolan (10 December 1914 – 10 August 2010) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician. He was a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1961 to 1965, and a Senator from 1965 to 1969 and from 1973 to 1982. He was Cathaoirleach (chairman) of Seanad Éireann from 1977 to 1981.[1]

Born in Gubaveeney, near Blacklion in County Cavan, he was a farmer and national school teacher before entering politics.[1] Dolan was elected in 1961 to Dáil Éireann for the Cavan constituency (which he had contested unsuccessfully at the 1954 and 1957 elections). He lost his seat at the 1965 general election, and although he stood in the next two general elections (in 1969 and 1973), he never returned to the Dáil.

However, after his 1977 defeat, he was elected to the 11th Seanad Éireann on the Labour Panel. He did not seek re-election in 1973, but was returned in 1977 to the 13th Seanad. From 1977 to 1981 he was Cathaoirleach (chairman) of the 14th Seanad (1981–1982) and as Leas-Chathaoirleach (Deputy chairman) in the 15th Seanad.

Séamus Dolan died on 10 August 2010.

Members of the Seventeenth Dáil - Desmond Governey

Desmond Governey (11 September 1920 – 29 December 1984) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who represented Carlow–Kilkenny as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1969 to 1977 and from 1981 to 1982.[1]

He was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fine Gael Teachta Dála (TD) for the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency at the 1961 general election. He was re-elected at each subsequent general election until his defeat at the 1977 general election. Following the loss of his Dáil seat, Governey was elected to the 14th Seanad by the Industrial and Commercial Panel, where he served from 1977 to 1981. He regained his Dáil seat at the 1981 general election, and was re-elected at the February 1982 general election and retired from politics at the November 1982 general election.

He was educated at Castleknock College and was in government under his former school mate Liam Cosgrave.

The Seventeenth Dáil

This is a list of the members who were elected to the 17th Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These TDs (Members of Parliament) were elected at the 1961 general election on 4 October 1961 and met on 11 October 1961. The 17th Dáil was dissolved by President Éamon de Valera, at the request of the Taoiseach Seán Lemass on 18 March 1965. The 17th Dáil lasted 1,281 days.

The list of the 144 TDs elected, is given in alphabetical order by constituency.
Members of the 17th Dáil
Carlow–KilkennyPatrick CrottyFine Gael
Jim GibbonsFianna Fáil
Desmond GoverneyFine Gael
Martin MedlarFianna Fáil
Séamus PattisonLabour Party
CavanSéamus DolanFianna Fáil
Patrick O'ReillyFine Gael
Paddy SmithFianna Fáil
ClarePatrick HoganCeann Comhairle
Patrick HilleryFianna Fáil
William MurphyFine Gael
Seán Ó CeallaighFianna Fáil
Cork BoroughStephen BarrettFine Gael
Anthony BarryFine Gael
Seán CaseyLabour Party
John GalvinFianna Fáil
Jack LynchFianna Fáil
Cork MidDan DesmondLabour Party
Seán McCarthyFianna Fáil
Con MeaneyFianna Fáil
Denis O'SullivanFine Gael
Cork North–EastRichard BarryFine Gael
Philip BurtonFine Gael
Martin CorryFianna Fáil
Patrick McAuliffeLabour Party
John MoherFianna Fáil
Cork South–WestSeán CollinsFine Gael
Edward CotterFianna Fáil
Michael MurphyLabour Party
Donegal North–EastNeil BlaneyFianna Fáil
Liam CunninghamFianna Fáil
Paddy HarteFine Gael
Donegal South–WestJoseph BrennanFianna Fáil
Cormac BreslinFianna Fáil
Patrick O'DonnellFine Gael
Dublin CountyKevin BolandFianna Fáil
Patrick BurkeFianna Fáil
Mark ClintonFine Gael
Seán DunneIndependent
Éamon RooneyFine Gael
Dublin North–CentralVivion de ValeraFianna Fáil
Celia LynchFianna Fáil
Patrick McGilliganFine Gael
Frank SherwinIndependent
Dublin North–EastJack BeltonFine Gael
Patrick ByrneFine Gael
George ColleyFianna Fáil
Charles HaugheyFianna Fáil
Eugene TimmonsFianna Fáil
Dublin North–WestDeclan CostelloFine Gael
Richard GoganFianna Fáil
Michael MullenLabour Party
Dublin South–CentralJoseph BarronClann na Poblachta
Philip BradyFianna Fáil
Patrick CumminsFianna Fáil
Maurice E. DockrellFine Gael
Seán LemassFianna Fáil
Dublin South–EastNoël BrowneNational Progressive Democrats
John A. CostelloFine Gael
Seán MacEnteeFianna Fáil
Dublin South–WestRobert BriscoeFianna Fáil
James CarrollIndependent
Noel Lemass, JnrFianna Fáil
James O'KeeffeFine Gael
Richie RyanFine Gael
Dún Laoghaire and RathdownSeán BradyFianna Fáil
Lionel BoothFianna Fáil
Liam CosgraveFine Gael
H. Percy DockrellFine Gael
Galway EastMichael CartyFianna Fáil
Michael DonnellanClann na Talmhan
Brigid Hogan-O'HigginsFine Gael
Michael F. KittFianna Fáil
Anthony MillarFianna Fáil
Galway WestGerald BartleyFianna Fáil
Fintan CooganFine Gael
Johnny GeogheganFianna Fáil
Kerry NorthPatrick FinucaneIndependent
Tom McEllistrimFianna Fáil
Dan SpringLabour Party
Kerry SouthPatrick ConnorFine Gael
Honor CrowleyFianna Fáil
Timothy O'ConnorFianna Fáil
KildareBrendan CrinionFianna Fáil
Patrick DooleyFianna Fáil
William NortonLabour Party
Gerard SweetmanFine Gael
Laois–OffalyKieran EganFianna Fáil
Nicholas EganFianna Fáil
Oliver J. FlanaganFine Gael
Patrick LalorFianna Fáil
Tom O'HigginsFine Gael
Limerick EastPaddy ClohessyFianna Fáil
Stephen CoughlanLabour Party
Tom O'DonnellFine Gael
Donogh O'MalleyFianna Fáil
Limerick WestJames CollinsFianna Fáil
Denis JonesFine Gael
Donnchadh Ó BriainFianna Fáil
Longford–WestmeathFrank CarterFianna Fáil
Michael KennedyFianna Fáil
Seán Mac EoinFine Gael
Joseph SheridanIndependent
LouthFrank AikenFianna Fáil
Paddy DoneganFine Gael
Pádraig FaulknerFianna Fáil
Mayo NorthMichael BrowneFine Gael
Phelim CallearyFianna Fáil
Joseph LenehanIndependent
Mayo SouthJoseph BlowickClann na Talmhan
Seán FlanaganFianna Fáil
Henry KennyFine Gael
Micheál Ó MóráinFianna Fáil
MeathDenis FarrellyFine Gael
Michael HilliardFianna Fáil
James TullyLabour Party
MonaghanErskine H. ChildersFianna Fáil
James DillonFine Gael
Patrick MooneyFianna Fáil
RoscommonJames BurkeFine Gael
Brian LenihanFianna Fáil
Jack McQuillanNational Progressive Democrats
Patrick J. ReynoldsFine Gael
Sligo–LeitrimJames GallagherFianna Fáil
Eugene GilbrideFianna Fáil
Eugene GilhawleyFine Gael
Joseph McLoughlinFine Gael
Tipperary NorthThomas DunneFine Gael
John FanningFianna Fáil
Patrick TierneyLabour Party
Tipperary SouthDan BreenFianna Fáil
Michael DavernFianna Fáil
Patrick HoganFine Gael
Seán TreacyLabour Party
WaterfordThomas KyneLabour Party
Thaddeus LynchFine Gael
John OrmondeFianna Fáil
WexfordLorcan AllenFianna Fáil
Brendan CorishLabour Party
Anthony EsmondeFine Gael
James RyanFianna Fáil
WicklowPaudge BrennanFianna Fáil
James EverettLabour Party
Michael O'HigginsFine Gael


30 May 1963Dublin North–EastFine GaelFine GaelPaddy Belton (FG) holds the seat vacated by the death of his brother Jack Belton (FG)
27 October 1963Dublin South–EastLabour PartyNational Progressive DemocratsNoël Browne (NPD) disbands the National Progressive Democrats and joins the Labour Party
27 October 1963RoscommonLabour PartyNational Progressive DemocratsJack McQuillan (NPD) disbands the National Progressive Democrats and joins the Labour Party
27 October 1963Dublin CountyLabour PartyIndependentSeán Dunne (Ind) joins the Labour Party
19 February 1964Cork BoroughFianna FáilFianna FáilSheila Galvin (FF) wins the seat vacated by the death of her husband John Galvin (FF)
19 February 1964KildareFianna FáilLabour PartyTerence Boylan (FF) wins the seat vacated by the death of William Norton (Lab)
8 July 1964RoscommonFine GaelFine GaelJoan Burke (FG) holds the seat vacated by the death of her husband James Burke (FG)
3 December 1964Galway EastFine GaelClann na TalmhanJohn Donnellan (FG) wins the seat vacated by the death of his father Michael Donnellan (CnaT)
10 March 1965Cork MidLabour PartyLabour PartyEileen Desmond (Lab) holds the seat vacated by the death of her husband Dan Desmond (Lab)

Sunday, March 10, 2013

Disturbances in Ireland - May 1916


HC Deb 29 May 1916 vol 82 cc2404-6W2404W

asked the Under-Secretary of State for War if he can state on what charge James Hefferman and Michael Morris were arrested at Gort-nahoe, county Tipperary, on the 11th instant; whether he can state their present place of detention; and whether their trial will take place by court-martial or before a civil court?
These men are at Glasgow, and their cases at present are under investigation.
asked the Under-Secretary of State for War (1) whether any charge has been made against the undermentioned men from Dundalk detained at Stafford Detention Barracks; and, if not, whether their cases will be inquired into without delay with a view to their immediate release, namely: P. Casey, Castle-town Road; J. J. Walter, Maxwell Terrace; T. Sharkey, 7, Dublin Street; J. Barrett, 13, Dublin Street; and P. Halpin, Burns Row, all of Dundalk; and (2) whether any charge has been made against the undermentioned men detained at Wakefield Detention Barracks; if not, whether their cases will be inquired into without delay with a view to their immediate release, namely, William Atkinson, 3, New Street; Arthur O'Neill, Hill 2405W Street; Thomas Hamill, 37, Broughton Street; Daniel Tuite, Castletown Road; Samuel Hall, 9, Jocelyn Street; Patrick Kerr, Castletown Road; Phil M'Quillan, Maxwell Road; John Finegan, 21, St. Patrick's Terrace; James Hanratty, Mill Street; Jos. M'Guill, Bridge Street; and Owen Gough, 97, Clanbrassil Street, nil of Dundalk?
asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether the young men arrested and carried away from the peaceful rural district of Drumraney, Westmeath, have yet been restored to their homes and business; and, if not, whether they will, without further delay, foe either restored or tried on any charge that can be brought against them?
asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether he is aware that during the recent rebellion in Ireland there was no trouble of any kind at Blackrock, county Dublin, but that in spite of this fact several men who took no part whatever in the rising have been arrested from that locality and deported to England; whether forms on which to apply for release have been supplied to Timothy Finn, No. 9, Brusna Cottage, Blackrock; Richard Carter, Booterstown Avenue; George Miller, Booterstown Avenue; Martin Tobin, No. 7, Main Street, Blackrock, all detained in Wake-field Detention Barracks; whether forms have also been supplied to Edward Finn, No. 27, Brookfield Avenue, Blackrock; M. Horan, No. 2, Annesley Avenue, Blackrock; B. Fox, No. 5, Brookfield Avenue, Blackrock; R. O'Connell, No. 9, Main Street, Blackrock; W. Alexander, No. 4, Brookfield Avenue, Blackrock; J. Gas-coyne, No. 74, Brookfield Buildings, Blackrock; and J. Brandon, No. 45, Temple Road, Blackrock, all detained in Stafford detention barracks; and whether these men will be released without delay if no charge has been brought against them?
All such cases are now being investigated as rapidly as possible, and where no hostile association detrimental to the public safety and the defence of the realm is apparent the military authorities will order release.
asked the Undersecretary of State for War whether William M'Gill, Barrack Street, Dunmore, county Galway, and Michael Ronayne, Dunmore, county Galway, who are both detained in Wandsworth Detention Bar- 2406W racks, have been supplied with forms on which to apply for their release; whether the case of these two men will be considered without delay; and whether in the case of Ronayne the fact will be taken into account that for weeks before his arrest he was on sick leave from his employment suffering from an attack of blood poisoning?
Commandants of Detention Barracks have been instructed to supply forms of application for release to all prisoners under their charge. These cases will be investigated with as little delay as possible, and all facts in favour of the prisoners will be given every consideration.
asked the Under-Secretary of State for War if he knows through what blunder Michael Doyle, of 82, Lower Gardiner Street, Dublin, a confirmed invalid over seventy-five years of age and wholly unconnected with current events, has been arrested and deported; and whether this invalid will be released and sent home immediately?
This case has already been investigated, and the release of this man has been ordered.

Saturday, March 9, 2013

Ne Temere

NE TEMERE (On Marriage)
Sacred Congregation Of The Council

Decree concerning betrothal and marriage issued by order and authority
of our Most Holy Lord Pope Pius X, by the Sacred Congregation of the
Council. The Church of God has always very justly detested and forbidden
secret marriages. Therefore, lest perhaps anyone should enter into such
marriages, the Council of Trent (cap. I, Sess. XXIV de reform. matrim.)
taught that, "Whoever attempts to contract marriage except in the presence
of their pastor, or another priest properly delegated by the pastor or the
Ordinary, and two or three witnesses, the Holy Synod declares wholly
unable to contract marriage in such a way, and so judges contracts of
this sort to be null and void."

But because this same Sacred Council had commanded that a decree
of this kind be published in every parish, the decree would not be in
force except in those places where it was in fact so promulgated. It
thus happened that many places, in which that publication did not take
place, have even now never received the benefit of the Tridentine law,
and still remain subject to the doubts and disadvantages of the ancient

And indeed wherever the new law has been in force, all difficulty has
been removed. For often grave doubt existed in discerning the person
of the pastor in whose presence the marriage was contracted. Canonical
discipline stated that "their own pastor" ought to be understood as
referring to the priest whose domicile, or quasi-domicile, was in the parish
of one or the other of the partners. Because it is often difficult to judge
what exactly constitutes a quasi-domicile, not a few marriages were put
in danger of being null: many also, whether by the ignorance of men or
by fraud, were observed to be wholly illegitimate and contrary to the
prescribed rules [illegitima atque inrita].

We observe that these things, long since deplored, are happening more
frequently in our own times, when comings and goings among peoples,
even those most distant from each other, are accomplished more easily
and quickly. Therefore it has seemed expedient to wise and most learned
men that some changes be made in the law concerning the form of
celebrating marriage. And even more bishops, from every part of the earth,
and especially from the more populous states, where there is a graver
necessity, have besought the Apostolic See for this same reason.

It has likewise been requested by the Bishops, as much those of Europe
as of other regions, that action be taken against some troublesome
effects of betrothals, i.e., the private mutual promises of future marriage.
For experience has taught us well enough what perils betrothals of this
kind bear with them: at first, the inducements to sin and the cause of
inexperienced girls being deceived; afterwards, unresolvable strife and

In response to these related problems, Our Most Holy Lord Pope Pius X,
on account of the solicitude which he has for all the Churches, and desiring
by means of a certain moderation to remove the losses and dangers
which we have just mentioned, commissioned the Sacred Congregation
of the Council that it might see to this matter, and then propose to Himself
such things as it judges appropriate.

He wished also to hear the wishes of the Council established for the purpose
of unifying canon law, and also of the Eminent Cardinals who have been
chosen, by a special commission, to prepare that same code: who, like
the Sacred Congregation of the Council, often hold assemblies for that
very reason. Having obtained the opinions of all, our Most Holy Lord
commanded the Sacred Congregation of the Council to issue a decree
containing laws tested by certain knowledge and full deliberation, by
which the discipline of betrothal and marriage might be governed, and
their celebration set straight, and made fixed and orderly. In execution
therefore of the Apostolic mandate the Sacred Congregation of the Council
in these present letters establishes and decrees the following:

On Betrothals

I. Only those betrothals are held valid and obtain the canonical effects,
which are contracted in writing and signed by both parties, as well as by
the pastor, the local Ordinary, or at least two witnesses.

If either party does not know how to write, this fact is to be noted in writing,
and another witness is to be added, who along with the pastor, or the
  local Ordinary, or the two witnesses (as established above) is to sign
the document.

II. Under the title of "pastor," both here and in the following articles,
come not only those who legitimately govern a canonically established
parish, but also, in regions where there are no canonically established
parishes, the priest to whom the care of souls in some definite territory
has been legitimately assigned, and who is equal in duties to the pastor;
and in missions, where the territory is not yet completely divided, every
priest universally deputed by the Moderator of the mission to the care of
souls in a certain area.

On Marriage

III. Only those marriages are valid which are contracted before the pastor
or the local Ordinary, or a priest delegated by either of these, as well as
at least two witnesses, subject to the rules expressed in the following
articles, and with the exception of those which are discussed below in n.

IV.—The pastor and the local Ordinary validly assist at a marriage,

1. only from the day they receive possession of the benefice or the beginning
of the office, unless they have been expressly [lit.: by name] and by public
decree excommunicated or suspended from their office;

2. only within the boundaries of their own territory; within these boundaries
they validly assist at marriages not only of their own subjects, but also of
those not subject to them;

3. only when invited and requested, and constricted neither by force nor
by grave fear, they require and receive the consent of those contracting.

V.—However, they licitly assist,

1. when they have made certain legally of the free state of those contracting,
according to the relevant portions of the law;

2. when they have made certain moreover that at least one of those
contracting resides permanently in the place of the marriage, or at least
has resided there for one month;

3. otherwise, in order that pastor or the local Ordinary may licitly assist
at a marriage, they must obtain the permission of the proper pastor or
local Ordinary of either partner, except in case of grave necessity, in
which case they are excused from obtaining such permission.

4. With respect to migrants, except in case of necessity it is not permitted
for the pastor to assist at their marriages, unless, having referred the
matter to the Ordinary or a priest delegated by him, he obtains permission
to do so.

5. In any case, however, let it be held as a rule that the marriage be
celebrated before the pastor of the bride, unless there is some grave
reason to act otherwise.

VI.—The pastor and the local Ordinary can grant to another specifically
determined priest permission to assist at marriages within the boundaries
of their own territory.

Any priest so delegated, however, in order that he may validly and
licitly assist, must be required to keep the limits of his mandate, as
well as the rules already established for the pastor and the local Ordinary
in numbers IV and V.

VII.—In imminent danger of death, when the pastor, or the local Ordinary,
or a priest delegated by either of them cannot be had, for the quieting
of conscience and (if the case requires it) the legitimization of a child,
marriage can be contracted validly and licitly before any priest and two

VIII.—If it should happen that in a certain region the pastor or the
local Ordinary, or a priest delegated by them, before whom a marriage
can be celebrated, cannot be had, and this state of affairs has already
continued for a month, marriage can be validly and licitly entered into
by the formal consent of the spouses before two witnesses.

IX.—1. When the marriage has been celebrated, the pastor, or whoever
bears his duties, is to immediately inscribe in the book of marriages
the names of the spouses and of the witnesses, the place and the
day of the celebration, and the other things, according to the manner
prescribed in the ritual books or by the proper Ordinary; and this holds
true even if another priest, delegated either by himself or by the
Ordinary, has assisted at the marriage.

2. Furthermore, let the pastor note also in the book of the baptized,
that the wife has contracted a marriage on such and such a day in
his parish. But if the wife was baptized elsewhere, the pastor must,
either directly or through the episcopal curia, give notice to the
pastor of the baptism that the contract has been entered into, so that
the marriage may be entered in the book of baptism.

3. As often as marriage is contracted according to the norm of number
VII or VIII, the priest (in the first case) or the witnesses (in the second)
must take great care, together with the marriage partners, that the
contracting of marriage be noted in the prescribed books as soon as possible.

X.—Pastors who violate the norms prescribed above are to be punished
by their Ordinaries in accordance with the manner and the gravity of
the fault. Moreover, if they assist at any marriage against the prescriptions
of sections 2 and 3 of number V, they may not keep the "stole" fees, but
must remit them to the proper pastor of the marriage partners.

XI.—1. All those baptized into the Catholic Church, or converted to
her from heresy or schism (even if either of these have afterwards
abandoned her), are bound by the laws decreed above as often as
they shall enter into betrothal or marriage among themselves.

2. This remains the case even when such Catholics contract betrothal
or marriage with either baptized or unbaptized non-Catholics, after
obtaining a dispensation from the impediment of mixed religion or of
disparity of cult; unless the Holy See has declared otherwise for some
particular place or region.

3. Non-Catholics, whether baptized or unbaptized, if they marry among
themselves, are in no way bound to observe the Catholic form of
betrothal or marriage.

Let the present decree be considered legitimately published and
promulgated by its transmission to the local Ordinaries: and let those
things which have been established therein begin everywhere to have
force of law on the solemnity of Easter, the Resurrection of our Lord
Jesus Christ next year, 1908.

But meanwhile, let all the local Ordinaries take care that this decree
be published in the vernacular as soon as possible, and in all the parish
churches of their own dioceses be explained, that it may be rightly know by all.

These present decrees will be valid by the special mandate of our
Most Holy Lord Pope Pius X, all contrary decrees, even those worthy o
f special mention, notwithstanding.

Give at Rome on August 10, 1907.
Vincent Cardinal, Bishop of Palestrina, Prefect.
C. De Lai, Secretary.

Fethard boycott recalled

In an article from The Mayo News dated 23 May 2007, it recalls:

May has been a memorable month in Ireland. Who would have believed, some years ago, that the Democratic Unionist Party and Sinn Féin would agree to work in government in Northern Ireland; or that Dr Ian Paisley and An Taoiseach, Mr Bertie Ahern, would make a joint visit to the site of the Battle of the Boyne as a mark of reconciliation?

Mr Ahern’s address to the Houses of Parliament in London followed these ground-breaking events and expressed abundantly the present amicable state of Anglo-Irish relations.

In his play, The Cure at Troy, Seamus Heaney writes:
“History says, don’t hope
On this side of the grave.
But then, once in a lifetime
The longed-for tidal wave
Of justice can rise up,
And hope and history rhyme.”

Hope and history have rhymed in Ireland in recent weeks.

What a contrast with an unsavoury incident in the small Wexford village of Fethard-on-Sea 50 years ago. A drama that attracted national and international headlines centred on the lives of a young married couple, Seán and Sheila Cloney. Seán was a Roman Catholic and Sheila a member of the Church of Ireland. When they married, Sheila, under some duress, agreed to the terms of the Ne Temere papal decree which insisted that children of a mixed marriage be brought up as Roman Catholics.

By 1957, their eldest daughter, Eileen, was of school-going age. They also had a younger daughter, Mary. The parish priest, Fr Laurence Allen, visited the home and ordered them to send Eileen to the local Catholic school. Sheila, a high-spirited woman, resented this pressure as she felt a deep sense of injustice about the provisions of the Ne Temere decree.

In late April Sheila left home, without informing her husband, and went to Belfast with the two girls. Some days later a Belfast barrister, Desmond Toal, went to Fethard-on-Sea to inform Seán Cloney of the whereabouts of his wife and children. He also told him she was prepared to return to him only if he sold the farm and emigrated. Seán refused and began legal proceedings for the return of his children.

The private difficulties of a married couple then escalated into a public row. The curate of the parish, Fr William Stafford, announced a boycott of local Protestant business from the altar at Sunday Mass. Catholics stopped patronising the two local Protestant shops; the Catholic teacher left the Protestant school; the Protestant music teacher lost her pupils; Protestant farmers could not sell their produce or find Catholic workers to help on their farm. Time Magazine announced an addition to the English language - ‘fethardism: meaning to practice boycott on religious lines’.

The row deepened when the boycott was supported by a leading member of the Catholic hierarchy. The then Bishop of Galway, Dr Michael Browne, a man not noted for the subtlety of his views, told a meeting in Wexford: “There seems to be a concerted campaign to entice or kidnap Catholic children and deprive them of their faith. Non-Catholics, with one or two honourable exceptions do not protest against the crime of conspiring to steal the children of a Catholic father. But they try to make political capital when a Catholic people make a peaceful and moderate protest.”

A Catholic barrister, and later judge, Mr Donal Barrington, counteracted this Episcopal view by calling the boycott ‘the most terrible thing that has happened in this country since the Civil War’. The then Taoiseach, Mr Eamon de Valera, made a dignified statement to the Dáil, calling for an end to the hostilities.

“If, as head of the Government, I must speak, I can only say from what has appeared in public that I regard this boycott as ill-conceived, ill-considered and futile for the achievement of the purpose for which it seems to have been intended, that I regard it as unjust and cruel to confound the innocent with the guilty, that I repudiate any suggestion that this boycott is typical of the attitude or conduct of our people and that I beg of all, who have regard for the fair name, good repute and well-being of our nation, to use their influence to bring this deplorable affair to a speedy end.”

His powerful words had an effect. The boycott was called off and Seán and Sheila Cloney were reconciled.

As I implied at the opening of this article, we have moved on in Ireland. We still face grave problems in church and society. Perhaps we can now bring the patience, imagination and creative intelligence that characterised the conduct of the peace process to their resolution?