Friday, November 26, 2010
At the September 1927 general election, he was elected as a Cumann na nGaedhael TD, and was re-elected at the 1932 general election. He lost his seat at the 1933 general election but was elected as a Fine Gael TD at the 1937 general election. He again lost his seat at the 1938 general election.
He was elected to the Irish Free State Seanad Éireann at a by-election on 20 June 1929 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice. He was re-elected to the Seanad for a 9 year term in 1931 and served until the Free State Seanad was abolished in 1936. He was nominated by the Taoiseach on the 2 January 1940 to the 3rd Seanad. He did not contest the 1943 Seanad election. He served as Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1917 to 1924 serving through the Irish War of Independence and the Irish Civil War.
He was born in Dublin in 1882. He was the son of a docker, who died when Alfred was only thirteen years old. Byrne worked as a theatre programme seller and barman before buying his own pub, The Vernon in Talbot Street, Dublin. He entered politics at the age of twenty-seven, being elected to Dublin Corporation for North Dock ward with a large majority.
Byrne became an Alderman on Dublin Corporation in 1914. He was a member of the Dublin Port and Docks Board, a significant position for a politician from the Dublin Harbour constituency. In the records of the Oireachtas his occupation is given as company director.
He was elected MP for Dublin Harbour in a by-election on 1 October 1915, as an Irish Parliamentary Party candidate. He was defeated by Philip Shanahan of Sinn Féin, in the 1918 general election.
Byrne's constituent Philip Shanahan (the man who defeated him in 1918) had legal problems following the Easter Rising. Shanahan consulted the lawyer and Nationalist politician Timothy Healy. Byrne attended this conference between Shanahan and his Parliamentary colleague. Healy commented:
"I had with me to-day a solicitor with his client, a Dublin publican named Phil Shanahan, whose licence is being opposed, and whose house was closed by the military because he was in Jacob's during Easter week. I was astonished at the type of man - about 40 years of age, jolly and respectable. He said he "rose out" to have a "crack at the English" and seemed not at all concerned at the question of success or failure. He was a Tipperary hurler in the old days. For such a man to join the Rebellion and sacrifice the splendid trade he enjoyed makes one think there are disinterested Nationalists to be found. I thought a publican was the last man in the world to join a rising! Alfred Byrne, M. P., was with him, and is bitter against the Party. I think I can save Shanahan's property."The rapid decline of the Irish Parliamentary Party and the rise of Sinn Féin, even in the formerly immensely safe Dublin Harbour constituency, followed the Rising. Byrne continued his political career in independent Ireland. He was elected as an independent TD for the Dublin Mid constituency in the election to the Third Dáil in 1922. In the Fourth to Sixth Dála (1923–1928) he represented Dublin North. He was an elected a member of Seanad Éireann, for a six year term, in 1928. He vacated his Dáil seat on 4 December 1928. He resigned from the Seanad on 10 December 1931. Byrne returned to the Dáil in 1932 and sat there until his death in 1956. He represented Dublin North (1932–1937) and Dublin North East (1937–1956).
He was elected the Lord Mayor an unprecedented nine times without a break from 1930 until 1939. He also served as the Lord Mayor in 1954 and 1955. The by-election caused by his death, was won by his son Patrick Byrne. Two other sons Alfred P. Byrne and Thomas Byrne were also TDs for various Dublin constituencies.
Alfie Byrne died in Dublin in March 1956 and his funeral attracted thousands, especially from the ranks of the poor in the inner city and docklands whose cause he championed through a long and colourful career.
Each Summer, the Labour Party holds the "Tom Johnson Summer School" to discuss various issues and campaigns.
Tuesday, November 23, 2010
Darrell Edmund Figgis (Irish: Darghal Figes; 17 September 1882 – 27 October 1925) was an Irish writer, Sinn Féin activist and independent parliamentarian in the Irish Free State. The little that has been written about him has attempted to highlight how thoroughly his memory and works have been excised from Irish popular culture.
Darrell Figgis was born at Rathmines in Dublin, but while he was still an infant his family emigrated to Calcutta in India. There his father worked as an agent in the tea business, founding A W Figgis & Co. They returned when Darrell was ten years of age, though his father continued to spend much of his time in India.
As a young man he worked in London at the tea brokerage owned by his uncle and it was at this time that he began to develop his interest in literature and literary criticism.
In 1910 Figgis, with the help of G. K. Chesterton, who wrote the introduction to his first book of verse, joined the Dent publishing company. For much of his time with Dent, Figgis resided at 42 Asmuns Hill Hampstead Gardens in London. He moved to Achill Island in 1913 to write, learn Irish and (like others of the Gaelic Revival) gain an appreciation of Irish culture, as perceived by many of his contemporaries to uniquely exist on the western seaboard. On his detention following the Easter Rising, he and the publishing house 'parted company'. Subsequently he established his own firm in which he republished the works of William Carleton and others.
Figgis joined the Irish Volunteers in Dublin in 1913 and organised the original Battalion of Volunteers in Achill, where he had built a house. While in London, he was contacted by The O'Rahilly, who acquainted him with the arms dealers who had supplied the Ulster Volunteers.
In this way, he became part of the London group that discussed the financing and supply of German rifles for the Volunteers. This group of gun-runners included Molly and Erskine Childers, Mary Spring-Rice, Alice Stopford Green and Sir Roger Casement. He travelled with Erskine Childers, initially to Belgium and from there to Germany to make the purchase of the army surplus Mauser rifles.
Figgis then chartered the tug Gladiator, from which the arms were transferred at sea to the Childers' yacht Asgard and Conor O'Brien's Kelpie. As well as the Childers and Spring-Rice, Asgard was crewed by Captain Gordan Shephard of the Royal Flying Corps, and Patrick McGinley and Charles Duggan, two fishermen from Gola Island, Donegal.
At this time, the Royal Navy was patrolling the Irish Sea in anticipation of imminent war with Germany, and Figgis was tasked with taking a motor boat to Lambay Island to signal to the Asgard the all-clear.
By his own account, he was unable to persuade the skipper of the pilot vessel to put to sea as one of the worst storms in many years had been raging. Due to luck and the skill of the crews, the three over-laden yachts arrived at their destinations. Figgis, accompanied by Seán McGarry watched Asgard helplessly from Howth pier, until Erskine, with Molly at the helm decided to take a calculated risk and sailed into the harbour. Against the odds, the conspiracy with Casement, Eoin MacNeill and Bulmer Hobson to buy rifles in Germany and land them safely in Ireland had succeeded. A large party of Volunteers, on their way to Dublin with rifles and ammunition was confronted by a detachment of the King's Own Scottish Borderers and Dublin Metropolitan Police. With their route blocked, Figgis and Thomas MacDonagh engaged the officers in an attempt to distract them. Figgis gave much of the credit for coordinating the quiet dispersal of the Volunteers with their contraband to "Commandant Kerrigan, a former soldier."
Although he did not participate in the 1916 Easter Rising, Figgis was arrested and interned by the British authorities between 1916 and 1917 in Reading Gaol. His wife Millie wrote to The New Age, detailing her husband's conditions in jail and what she saw as the excessively broad terms by which he was interned under the Defence of the Realm Act 1914. After his release, Figgis returned to Ireland.
At the 1917 Sinn Féin Ardfheis, he and Austin Stack were elected Honorary Secretaries of the party. The conference saw Éamon de Valera replace Arthur Griffith as President of the party. Griffith and Michael O'Flanagan became Vice-Presidents. Two Honorary Treasurers were also elected, W. T. Cosgrave and Laurence Ginnell. This duality of offices reflected the coalition nature of Sinn Féin between those of the constitutional tradition, and those who advocated a more militarist approach.
Shortly after, Figgis was one of four recently released internees who travelled to the South Longford constituency to campaign for Joseph McGuinness in the by-election caused by the death of John Phillips. The overwhelming victory of the Sinn Féin candidate over the Irish Parliamentary Party nominee marked the beginning of the eclipse of the former party over the latter. In May 1918, Figgis was arrested for his alleged part in the spurious German Plot a second time and again deported to England. In 1918, he became editor of the newspaper The Republic.
From September 1919 to 1921, Figgis headed the Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland. At this time a serious rift between Figgis and Michael Collins, then Minister for Finance, became a matter of public record. This close attention of Collins would pursue Figgis in his later activities on the Constitution Committee.
While Figgis was participating in a Dáil Court at Carrick on Shannon, the proceedings were interrupted by a British Army raid. An officer named Captain Cyril Crawford summarily "condemned" Figgis and Peadar Kearney to be hanged. He ordered rope for the purpose, but another officer intervened and Keaney and Figgis were set free.
Figgis supported the Anglo-Irish Treaty. He was extremely critical of the Collins/de Valera pact for the June 1922 elections which was an attempt to avoid a split in the Sinn Féin party and, more importantly, in the IRA. On 25 May 1922 he attended a meeting of the executive council of the Farmers' Union and representatives of business interests and encouraged them to put forward candidates in constituencies where anti-Treaty candidates may otherwise head the poll. As Figgis was a member of the Sinn Féin Ard Chomhairle National Executive at the time, he was expelled from the party. This contravention of policy must be assessed in light of the flagrant breaches of the terms of the Truce that were a daily occurrence at the time. These were an unambiguous indication that the IRA was not under the control of Dáil Éireann and efforts at party unity were to a certain extent cosmetic.
On 13 June 1922, Dublin newspapers carried reports of an assault on Darrell Figgis which involved the cutting of his beard. The Evening Herald reported that shortly before midnight, Millie Figgis had answered a knock at the door. Three men rushed past her seeking out her husband. Mrs. Figgis, fearing that they intended to shoot him, pushed into the room and attempted to lock it but was prevented from doing so by the intruders. The paper went on to say that "Mrs. Figgis is suffering severely from shock". Details of the attack remained vague until one of those responsible broke his silence 36 years later. He was the future Lord Mayor of Dublin, Robert Briscoe, at the time of this disclosure the most prominent and respected politician from the Jewish community in Ireland. A less than sympathetic attitude to the attack was not confined to Anti-Treatyites.
In a letter to Collins on the 13 June, his fiancée Kitty Kiernan wrote the following :
"Poor Darrell Figgis lost his nice red beard. When I read about it I could imagine you laughing and enjoying it very much. But it was a mean thing for Harry's cronies to do, wasn't it? Funny, this ages I've been expecting that something might happen to Figgis (from reading papers). He was lucky it was only his beard."
In the June 1922 and August 1923 general elections, he ran and was elected an independent Teachtaí Dála (member of parliament) for the Dublin County constituency.
In December 1923, it was decided that a committee be established to investigate the means by which a public radio broadcasting service should be operated in the Free State. A central issue of contention was whether the service should be run and controlled directly by the State or operated commercially by an Irish Broadcasting Company. The latter option, it was suggested, would follow the model adopted in the UK by the establishment of the BBC. Figgis was co-opted onto the committee, and this decision led to a series of allegations resulting in the new State's first corruption scandal of which Figgis himself was the focus.
A former business associate of Figgis, Andrew Belton, sent a letter to J.J. Walsh the Postmaster General. Walsh's own preferences for a private syndicate, which would include Mr. Belton and business acquaintances from Cork, together with his personal animosity towards Figgis, were evident from the outset. In the letter leaked by Walsh, Belton stated that Figgis had promised to use his political influence to assist him to gain government contracts. The accusation resulted in Figgis resigning from the Broadcasting committee and a second enquiry being launched to investigate these new allegations. Figgis strenuously denied any impropriety, claiming they were motivated by personal animosity when Mr. Belton's expectations of preferential treatment were unfulfilled. Belton's apparent connections with senior finance and political figures in London, including Lord Beaverbrook, were also matters of considerable disquiet.
Throughout his political career, Figgis' lobbying for remuneration was a constant source of resentment by his immediate colleagues. Many of them however, received income from their positions within the administration, or from private practice or both. The fact that Michael Collins, in his ministerial capacity, kept all official expenditure under minute scrutiny ensured that any transactions involving Figgis were subject to particularly detailed monitoring by Finance officials.
On 18 November 1924, Figgis' wife Millie committed suicide using a Webley revolver given to them by Collins following the 1922 assault. According to the inquest, she shot herself in the head in the back of a taxi in Rathfarnham, having previously ordered the driver to take her to the Hellfire Club. Two bullets in the gun were discharged. She was taken to the Meath Hospital and pronounced dead. A bloodstained suicide letter was handed by the Matron to Figgis when he arrived there. In her letter, Mrs. Figgis expressed her sorrow for the pain her action would cause to her husband and referred to injuries and depression arising from the 1922 attack. She was buried at Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin.
A year later there occurred the death of a new love, Rita North, due to medical difficulties apparently following an attempted abortion. Her body was brought back from London and she was buried by her family at Glasnevin Cemetery. Figgis himself committed suicide in a London boarding-house, just a week after giving evidence at Rita's inquest. He had been staying at the Royal Automobile Club until the day before his death, as was usual when he visited London. A small group of mourners comprising close family and friends attended his interment at the West Hampstead Cemetery.
The by-election caused by his death was won by William Norton of the Labour Party.
"Never a time went by without a bit of fun. Such an occasion was the degrading of Darrell Figgis...You should see him strolling down O’Connell Street in smartly cut clothes, with his red hair gleaming like newly polished boots, and a fine, red, square-cut beard that was his special pride. Now Figgis started making some very detrimental remarks about the IRA. We did not consider him a menace, he was too much the lightweight but he annoyed us with his waspish stings...Some of us held him tipped back on his swivel chair while one man produced a glittering razor. Figgis squealed like a pig ...I think he would have been happier had we just cut his throat." from Robert Briscoe's memoir, 1958.
Saturday, November 20, 2010
His nephew Liam Ahern served as a Fianna Fáil Senator and TD from 1957–74 and his grand-nephew Michael Ahern, son of Liam Ahern, has been a Fianna Fáil TD for Cork East since 1982.
As a well-off supporter of the underground Irish republican movement in the early twentieth century, his house on Mountjoy Square seems to have been a regular meeting place for senior figures within that movement. The notes of Seamus Reader, an Irish Volunteer from Glasgow, record a meeting in January 1916 at Cole's house
“Shortly after 5pm on the 2nd, January 1916, I went to Cole's house, Mountjoy Square, Dublin, where, while waiting in the kitchen for tea, I jotted my coded notes for my report to Scotland. I then went to the room where I met Tom Clarke, Sean McDermott, J Connolly, P Pearse and McDonagh.”all of whom were signatories to the Proclamation of the Irish Republic and all of whom were executed the following May, as leaders of the Easter Rising.
Cole is also documented as having hosted provisional Dáil meetings at his home, the assembly having been driven underground in September 1919. He was arrested by the military at his home at No. 3 Mountjoy Square in 1920.
After the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the foundation of the Irish Free State, he was elected a pro-Treaty Sinn Féin Teachta Dála (TD) to the 3rd Dáil Éireann for Cavan constituency at the 1922 general election. The "Pro-Treaty" prefix relates to his position in the Irish Civil War. It is perhaps surprising that a Dublin man won in Cavan. He and Seán Milroy stood alongside Arthur Griffith with one other opponent, Patrick Baxter of the Farmers' Party and three seats available. Griffith received by far the largest popular vote (54%) with Baxter second (23%), Cole third (20%) and Milroy fourth (2%). As the Irish voting system uses proportional representation, Cole and Milroy were elected on the back of Griffith's surplus votes who had achieved more than twice the required quota. Cole stood again in Cavan as a Cumann na nGaedhael candidate at the following 1923 general election. Griffith had been killed in the Civil War by that time and Baxter topped the poll, this time with Milroy second. Cole was eliminated on the sixth count, despite there being an extra fourth seat.
Cole unsuccessfully ran for election to Seanad Éireann in 1925. He was later a commissioner for Mountjoy Square.
Gorey was first elected to the 3rd Dáil at the 1922 general election for the Carlow–Kilkenny constituency, taking his seat in the 3rd Dáil as leader of the Farmers' Party, which won seven seats.
He was re-elected at the 1923 general election, leading the Farmers' Party to a new high of 15 seats in the 4th Dáil. However, with the anti-treaty TDs abstaining from Dáil Éireann, the party remained in opposition to the Cumann na nGaedhael government of W. T. Cosgrave.
Gorey left the Farmers' Party and fought the June 1927 general election as a Cumann na nGaedhael candidate, winning election to the 5th Dáil. He lost his seat at the September 1927 general election. However, he was re-elected at the by-election on 3 November 1927 after W. T. Cosgrave, who had been elected both in Carlow–Kilkenny and in Cork Borough, chose to represent Cork Borough.
At the 1932 general election, he was re-elected with a share of the first-preference vote below 6%, relying on transfers for other candidates to reach the quota as the last of five TDs to be elected. He lost his seat again at the 1933 general election, but was returned at the 1937 general election to the 9th Dáil, for the new Kilkenny constituency, where he was returned again at the 1938 general election.
After his death on 20 February 1940 at the age of 65, no by-election was held for his seat, which remained vacant until the 1943 general election.
The party won seven seats in Dáil Éireann at the 1922 general election, the first in the Free State, and increased that total to fifteen in the 1923 election. These seats were concentrated in richer rural areas, an indicator that the party's support base was farmers with large holdings of land rather than the more numerous and poorer small farmers. At the 1925 Seanad election, the party won three seats.
During the 1920s, the Farmers' Party supported the Cumann na nGaedhael government. Support was strongest among the deputies who supported free trade. Among these members were the party leadership, particularly leader Denis Gorey, who proposed a merger of the Farmers' Party with Cumann na nGaedhael. Supporters of protectionism favoured continuation as an independent party, more criticism of the government, and from 1926 co-operation with the Fianna Fáil party, founded in 1926. This division between free-trading large farmers and protectionist small farmers harmed the party and eventually led to the partitioning of its votes between the two main parties. The pro-independence side won the tactical debate, and an embittered Gorey joined Cumann na nGaedhael in time for the June 1927 general election.
The party lost nine of its fifteen representatives in Dáil Éireann during 1927 to defections and two election defeats. It continued to support the Cumann na nGaedhael government throughout the late 1920s, most importantly in the vote of no confidence that preceded the September 1927 election. After that election, Farmers' Party leader Michael Heffernan was appointed to junior governmental office to ensure his party's support for the resulting minority government. Heffernan would himself join Cumann na nGaedhael before the subsequent election.
By the 1930s, the party had little representation and less hope for an independent future. The party's large farmer supporters had migrated to Cumann na nGaedhael, while it had never truly succeeded in becoming the dominant party among small farmers, whose affinity was with Fianna Fáil. After the 1932 general election, only a small core of intransigents unwilling to co-operate with either Cumann na nGaedhael or Fianna Fáil remained in Dáil Éireann. These deputies folded the Farmers' Party into the new National Centre Party and contested the 1933 election under that banner.
In the late 30's, attempts were made to refound a new farmers party. The new party split, the Irish Farmers Federation, split over the derating issue with many small farmers opposed to the measure, believing that an increase in indirect taxation which would be employed would harm their interests. They set up Clann na Talmhan, which was launched in 1938. It was much more radical and left wing than the original farmers party and garnered support from mainly small farmers.
The list of the 128 TDs elected, is given in alphabetical order by constituency.
Members of the 3rd Dáil
Constituency Name Party
W. T. Cosgrave Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Patrick Gaffney Farmers' Party
Denis Gorey Farmers' Party
Gearóid O'Sullivan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Walter L. Cole Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Arthur Griffith Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Seán Milroy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Patrick Brennan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Éamon de Valera Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Sean Liddy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Brian O'Higgins Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Robert Day Labour Party
Liam de Róiste Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Mary MacSwiney Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
James J. Walsh Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Cork East and North East
John Dinneen Farmers' Party
Michael Hennessy Independent
David Kent Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Cork Mid, North, South,South-East and West
Michael Bradley Labour Party
Michael Collins Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Daniel Corkery Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Sean Hales Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Sean Hayes Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Seán Moylan Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Thomas Nagle Labour Party
Daniel Vaughan Farmers' Party
Joseph McGinley Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Patrick McGoldrick Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Joseph O'Doherty Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Samuel O'Flaherty Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Joseph Sweeney Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Peter Ward Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Michael Derham Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
George Gavan Duffy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Darrell Figgis Independent
Desmond FitzGerald Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Thomas Johnson Labour Party
John Rooney Farmers' Party
Alfred Byrne Independent
Seán McGarry Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Seán T. O'Kelly Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Laurence O'Neill Independent
Dublin North West
Philip Cosgrave Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Joseph McGrath Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Richard Mulcahy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Michael Staines Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Thomas Kelly Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Myles Keogh Independent
Daniel McCarthy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
William X. O'Brien Labour Party
Ernest Alton Independent
James Craig Independent
Gerald Fitzgibbon Independent
William Thrift Independent
Bryan Cusack Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Frank Fahy Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Patrick Hogan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
George Nicolls Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Pádraic Ó Máille Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Thomas J. O'Connell Labour Party
Joseph Whelehan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Piaras Béaslaí Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Patrick Cahill Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Con Collins Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
James Crowley Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Fionán Lynch Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Thomas O'Donoghue Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Edmund Roche Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Austin Stack Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Robert Barton Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Christopher Byrne Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Hugh Colohan Labour Party
James Everett Labour Party
Richard Wilson Farmers' Party
Thomas Carter Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
James Dolan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Andrew Lavin Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Count Plunkett Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Francis Bulfin Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
William Davin Labour Party
Patrick McCartan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Kevin O'Higgins Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Limerick City–Limerick East
Michael Colivet Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Richard Hayes Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
William Hayes Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Kathleen O'Callaghan Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Laurence Ginnell Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
John Lyons Labour Party
Seán Mac Eoin Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Francis McGuinness Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Eamonn Duggan Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Peter Hughes Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
James Murphy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
John J. O'Kelly Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Cathal O'Shannon Labour Party
Mayo North and West
John Crowley Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Thomas Derrig Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Joseph MacBride Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
P. J. Ruttledge Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Mayo South–Roscommon South
Harry Boland Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Tom Maguire Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Daniel O'Rourke Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
William Sears Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Ernest Blythe Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Patrick McCarvill Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Eoin O'Duffy Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
National University of Ireland
Michael Hayes Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Eoin MacNeill Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
William Magennis Independent
William Stockley Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Frank Carty Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
James Devins Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Francis Ferran Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Alexander McCabe Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Thomas O'Donnell Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Tipperary Mid, North and South
Séamus Burke Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Joseph MacDonagh Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
P. J. Moloney Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Daniel Morrissey Labour Party
Cathal Brugha Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
John Butler Labour Party
Daniel Byrne Farmers' Party
Nicholas Phelan Labour Party
Vincent White Sinn Féin (Pro-Treaty)
Richard Corish Labour Party
Michael Doyle Farmers' Party
Séamus Doyle Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty)
Daniel O'Callaghan Labour Party
Again, I will go through the list above and post new members to the Third Dáil. I will not repeat any already posted.
The son of Rev. J. Gardner Robb, DD, LLD, Robb was educated at Royal Belfast Academical Institution, Queen's College, Belfast and called to the Bar at Gray's Inn and King's Inns, Dublin in 1898.
He was a Stormont MP for Queen's University from 1921 to 1937, following which he was Leader of the Senate of Northern Ireland and Minister for Education until 1943. From 1939 to 1943, he was Father of the Northern Irish Bar. From 1943 until retirement in 1954 he sat as a County Court judge.
Robb lived at Deramore Park, Belfast with his wife, Emily, and had one daughter.
This ends the Second Dáil.
The son of the Reverend Robert Campbell he was educated at the Royal University of Ireland and later at the Rotunda Hospital and the London Hospital. During the First World War he served in France as the chief surgeon at No. 5 British Red Cross Hospital.
He was a Member of the Northern Ireland Parliament for Queen's University of Belfast from 1921 to 1929.1 January 1925, John Campbell, Esq, MA, MD, M.Ch, FRCS, LLD, senior surgeon to the Samaritan Hospital for Women, Belfast. Member of Parliament (Northern Ireland) representing Queen's University is conferred the honour of knighthood.
He died after a long illness at his house at Craigavad, County Down on 31 August 1929.
Leeke owned a hotel and fishery. He was elected to Londonderry County Council for the Nationalist Party. At the Northern Ireland general election, 1921, Leeke was elected in the Londonderry seat, although he did not take his seat until 1926. In 1929, his seat was abolished, and he instead won the Mid Londonderry seat, which he held until his death in 1939. He was active in the Ancient Order of Hibernians.
Saturday, November 13, 2010
Dehra Kerr-Fisher was born in a military hospital in Dehra Dun, north of Delhi, India, in 1882, the daughter of James Kerr-Fisher of Kilrea, County Londonderry. She was educated in America, where her father held extensive property holdings, and in Germany . The surname has been spelled, alternatively as Ker-Fisher or Ker Fisher.
She was married on two occasions, firstly to Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Peel Dawson Spencer Chichester, MP (d. 1921) with whom she had one son and one daughter, both of whom predeceased her.
She married, secondly, Admiral Henry Wise Parker (CB, CMG) on 4 June 1928.
Dame Dehra was first elected as a Member of Parliament for Londonderry, as Dehra Chichester (which she was known as prior to her second marriage in 1928), in the Northern Ireland general election, 1921. She stood down at the 1929 election but was again elected in the 1933 election for the South Londonderry constituency following the death of her son-in-law, and served until her resignation on 15 June 1960.
From her re-election in 1933 until her retirement in 1960, Dame Dehra faced opposition only once. During the 1949 Northern Ireland General Election, with anti-partition agitation a common theme across the region, she was opposed in South Londonderry by a Nationalist Party candidate, T.B. Agnew, whom she defeated.
She was a Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Education from 1 December 1937 to 15 March 1944. Dame Dehra was also Chair of the Northern Ireland General Health Services Board from 1948 to 1949. She served as Minster of Health and Local Government from 26 August 1949 to 13 March 1957 and became a member of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland in 1949.
Her promotion to the Cabinet under Viscount Brookeborough was part of his reforming premiership; his predecessor having been criticised for appointing very elderly members to Cabinet. She was the first woman to serve in the Northern Ireland Cabinet.
Outside of parliamentary activities Dame Dehra was a long-serving local councillor on Magherafelt rural district council, president of both the Northern Ireland Physical Training Association and the Girls' Training Corps, chairman of the Ancient Monuments Advisory Committee, and chairman and later president of the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts in the province.
She died at her home, Shanemullagh House, Castledawson, County Londonderry, on 28 November 1963, aged 81. She was interred two days later in the grounds of Christ Church, Castledawson.
Her grandson, James Chichester-Clark, was elected unopposed at the by-election caused by her resignation in 1960.
Mulholland was the third son of Henry Lyle Mulholland, 2nd Baron Dunleath, and Norah Louisa Fanny Ward. He was a good cricketer at Cambridge University and also played a first-class match for Ireland against Scotland in 1911.
He was a member of the House of Commons of Northern Ireland for Down and was Assistant Parliamentary Secretary at the Ministry of Finance and Assistant Whip from 1925 until 1929, after which he served as Speaker of the House. He was admitted to the Privy Council of Northern Ireland in 1930 and in 1945 he was created a Baronet, of Ballyscullion Park in the County of Londonderry.
Mulholland married Sheelah Brooke, daughter of Sir Arthur Brooke, 4th Baronet, and sister of Basil Brooke, 1st Viscount Brookeborough, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. He died in March 1971, aged 82, and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son Michael, who in 1993 succeeded his cousin as fifth Baron Dunleath.
McBride worked as a farmer, and with textiles. He was also a lay preacher with the Church of Ireland. He joined the Ulster Unionist Party and was elected in Down at the Northern Ireland general election, 1921. He held the seat in 1925, and won West Down at the 1929 general election. He retired in 1933, but was elected to the Senate of Northern Ireland the following year, shortly before his death.
Lavery worked as a director of a hemstitching company. He was elected as an Ulster Unionist Party member of Down County Council, and also served as Deputy Lieutenant of County Down. At the Northern Ireland general election, 1921, he was elected in Down, and he held his seat, unopposed, at the 1925 general election. He stood down in 1929, due to illness, but was nonetheless elected the following year to the Senate of Northern Ireland, serving until his death in 1938.
Saturday, November 6, 2010
He was educated at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution and became a director of his family linen-bleaching company and of the Belfast Ropeworks, as well as a wealthy landowner. His brother, Thomas Andrews, was managing director of the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast and died in the sinking of the Titanic in 1912; another brother Sir James Andrews, 1st Baronet was Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland.
In 1902, he married Jessie (d. 1950), eldest daughter of Bolton stockbroker Joseph Ormrod at Rivington Unitarian Chapel, Rivington, near Chorley, Lancashire, England. They had one son and two daughters. His younger brother James married Jessie's sister.
In 1943, backbench dissent forced him from office, to be replaced as Prime Minister by Basil Brooke, however he remained the recognised leader of the Party for a further three years. Five years later he became the Grand Master of the Orange Order. From 1949, he was the last parliamentary survivor of the original 1921 Northern Ireland Parliament, and as such was recognised as the Father of the House. He is the only Prime Minister of Northern Ireland not to have been elevated to the peerage.
Throughout his life he was deeply involved in the Orange Order and was grand master of County Down from 1941, grand master of Ireland (1948-1954). In 1949, he was appointed Imperial Grand Master of The Grand Orange Council of the World.
He was elected to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland at the 1921 elections, representing the University of Dublin constituency as an independent Unionist, he did not participate in the Second Dáil. He was re-elected for the same constituency at the 1922 general election and became a member of the Third Dáil. He was re-elected at the next five general elections until 1937 when he retired from politics.
He was Provost of Trinity College, Dublin from 1937–42.
He was elected to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland at the 1921 elections, representing the University of Dublin constituency as an independent Unionist, he did not participate in the Second Dáil In 1924, the forced retirement of almost all the judges of the former regime made the finding of suitable replacements a serious problem. Hugh Kennedy, the new Chief Justice recommended Fiztgibbon as a judge of the Supreme Court simply on account of his legal ability, despite their serious differences on political issues.
Kennedy may have come to regret his decision as his diary records the increasing tension between them; Fitzgibbon, a Protestant Unionist had little sympathy with an increasingly Catholic Free State. The tension came to a head in 1935 when Fitzgibbon was in the majority in State (Ryan) v Lennon; in a judgement written in an extraordinary bitter, mocking style he found that the Irish Constitution of 1922 contained provisions for its own amendment which allowed suspension of the most basic human rights. Despite his obvious unhappiness he remained on the Court until he reached retirement age in 1938.
Born in County Westmeath, Alton graduated from Trinity College, Dublin in 1896 with honours in classics and philosophy. He was elected to the House of Commons of Southern Ireland at the 1921 elections, representing the University of Dublin constituency as an independent Unionist, he did not participate in the Second Dáil. He was re-elected for the same constituency at the 1922 general election and became a member of the Third Dáil. He was re-elected at the next five general elections until the Dublin University Dáil Éireann constituency was abolished in 1937. He served as a member of the 2nd Seanad and the 3rd Seanad representing the Seanad Éireann Dublin University constituency until 1943 when he retired from politics.
He was professor of Latin at Trinity College, Dublin from 1921 to 1942, and was provost from 1942 until his death in 1952.
Twaddell was a draper from Belfast who was educated at a Belfast primary school.
He was a Member of Belfast City Council from 1910 and sat as an Ulster Unionist Party member. He was elected to the Northern Ireland Parliament for Belfast West from the general election of 1921 until he was assassinated on the 22nd May 1922 by the Irish Republican Army. He was walking in Garfield Street, to his business, a short distance away, and had been followed closely by his assassins.
His death precipitated a clamp-down on the IRA in Northern Ireland and 350 IRA members were interned.
Twaddell was buried at Drumcree Church where his headstone records that he was 'foully murdered in Belfast'.
Tuesday, November 2, 2010
Born in Bangor, County Down, Pollock was the director of several companies and served as a Belfast Harbour Commissioner from 1900 until 1921, and as President of the Belfast Chamber of Commerce in 1917/18. At the Northern Ireland general election, 1921, he was elected in Belfast South, and he was immediately appointed as Northern Ireland's first Minister of Finance.
Pollock moved to represent Belfast Windsor in 1929, and served until his death in 1937.
McMordie was the daughter of Sir William Gray, of Hartlepool, County Durham. A Presbyterian, she was educated at Chislehurst, Kent. On 21 May 1886, she married prominent Belfast barrister Robert James McMordie; the couple made their home at Cabin Hill, The Knock, Belfast.
When the Officers returned from service with the Forces in World War 1, they decided that new headquarters were needed: the Troop had the use of Lomond Avenue schoolroom on only one night a week. A building at 12 Parkgate Avenue was rented instead. It was almost derelict to begin with, needing structural repairs as well as painting and decorating, but it was ready for the official opening by the Troop’s President, Julia McMordie, in October 1919. It was soon in use every night of the week.
In 1921, she was one of two women elected to the first Parliament of Northern Ireland, she represented South Belfast. She did not stand for re-election in 1925.
In October 1926, a purpose-built headquarters began to take shape in Oakland Avenue. That the project went ahead at all, despite the economic problems afflicting Belfast at the time, can be attributed to two people: Julia McMordie and Sydney Hanna.
Mrs McMordie, well known in Belfast for her philanthropic work, donated £500 towards the total cost of £1,200 and the headquarters were named after her.
Assistant Scoutmaster and treasurer Sydney Hanna, by now a prominent Belfast jeweller, organised fundraising dances and whist drives and bazaars. He shouldered the financial responsibility from 1923 through the Depression Years to 1934, when the overdraft was finally cleared. The official opening on 19 February 1927 was performed by the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Viscount Craigavon.
In 1925, McMordie moved to East Cliff, Budleigh Salterton, Devon, in order to be near her family (a son and daughter). She was the first female High Sheriff of Belfast (in 1928).
She died, in 1942, at her daughter's home in King's Cliffe, Oundle.
McCullagh was the director of several businesses in Belfast, including Maguire and Patterson, a dry goods firm (Vespa matches), and the Classic Cinema at Castle Place, as well as owning McCullagh and Co., a silk mercers, milliners and fancy drapery store taken over by Styles and Mantles in 1927.
McCullagh wasn't the originator of the 'Two Minutes Silence' to honour the fallen of the Battle of the Somme, as the late Newtownabbey historian Bob Armstrong claimed in his 1979 publication 'Through The Ages To Newtownabbey.' In truth, according to the Belfast Telegraph report on the occasion, stated that McCullagh actually called for a 'Five Minutes Silence' from the steps of Belfast City Hall following the slaughter of thousands of soldiers from the 36th (Ulster) Division on 1 July 1916. However, Sir Crawford was, significantly, the first recorded person to publicly call for a silent tribute for fallen soldiers, regardless of the duration of it being a One, Two or Five Minutes Silence.
McCullagh was knighted in 1915, and created a baronet on 1 July 1935. At the Northern Ireland general election, 1921, he was elected for Belfast South for the Ulster Unionist Party. He lost his seat at the 1925 general election, when he took only 4% of the first preference votes.
From 1931 until 1942, McCullagh was again Lord Mayor of Belfast, which now entitled him to a seat in the Senate of Northern Ireland. He was Deputy Speaker from 1939-41. In 1938 he negotiated with Lord Shaftesbury a donation to the city of Belfast Castle and its demesne of 200 acres (0.81 km2) bordering on Hazelwood and Bellevue pleasure grounds. He also opened the Floral Hall. In 1941, he was appointed to the Privy Council of Northern Ireland. From 1943 until 1946, he served a final term as Lord Mayor. Nobody else served as many terms as Lord Mayor of Belfast.
Sir Crawford's home, Lismarra, a mansion designed by Charles Lanyon, was renamed Abbeydene following his death.
Born in Belfast, Grant worked as a shipwright and was a founder member of the Ulster Unionist Labour Association. He was also a founder member of the Ulster Volunteer Force. He was elected to the Northern Ireland House of Commons as an Ulster Unionist Party member for Belfast North in 1929, then winning Belfast Duncairn in 1929, holding this until his death.
Grant became Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Labour in 1938, then Minister of Public Security in 1941. As a cabinet post, this carried with it membership of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland. He was then appointed Minister of Labour from 1943 until 1944 and briefly in 1945, and also served as Minster of Health and Local Government from 1944 until his death.
Born in Glasgow, he was educated locally before moving to Belfast. He sat on Belfast City Council, served as the city's Justice of the Peace and in 1923 was the High Sheriff of Belfast. He represented Belfast East in the Parliament of Northern Ireland from 1921 to 1925. Defeated at the 1925 election he contested the new Belfast Pottinger seat at the 1929 election but was not elected as the seat was taken by Jack Beattie.
Away from politics, Duff was President of the St. Andrews Society from 1925 to 1926 as well as President of the Belfast Scottish Association.